Effects of Crude Oil Inundated Soils on the Ecosystem – A Case Study

Crude Oil Inundated Soils Study

  • Mudiaga Chukunedum Onojake Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
  • Selegha Abrakasa
Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons; trace metals; impacted soil, depollution, oil spillage


Crude oil inundated soils were collected from Agbada field after a recorded incidence of oil spillage
to ascertain the effects of the oil spill on the soil status. Soil samples were collected from (0-30 cm) depths,
using the grid sampling technique. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the impacted soils ranged
from 1.81541×103-4.8525040×103 mg/kg. The levels of total organic carbon (%TOC), pH, conductivity,
sulphates, nitrates and phosphates were enhanced in impacted soil. The concentration of some trace metals
such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Fe and V were also analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cd ranged
from 0.2-0.38 mg/kg, Cu ranged from 4.20-5.20 mg/kg, Cr ranged from 18.40-44.40 mg/kg, Pb ranged
from 1.20-30.40 mg/kg, Ni ranged from 2.40-2.70 mg/kg, Fe ranged from 17581.77-30273.25 mg/kg and
V ranged 0.20-0.30 mg/kg. Most of the trace metals were highly enhanced in the impacted soil. Multivariate
statistical analysis was carried out on the dataset to unveil the variation and relationship among them.
Results showed that the first three principal components with the eigen values greater than one (>1.0)
represent 93.4% of the total variability, suggesting that three principal components effectively describe
the disparity in the data set. It was concluded that soils impacted with high hydrocarbon content; ultimately
affect its physicochemical characteristics, which in turn impinge on the agricultural potentials of the soil.