Heavy Metal Content of Refined and Bakery Salts Consumed in Pakistan

Heavy Metals of Salts

  • Abrar ul Hassan Department of Chemistry, University of Management and Technology, Joher Town, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sakhawat Ali
  • Salman Muhsen
  • Muhammad Rizwan
Keywords: heavy metals, refined salts, bakery salts


This study involved the investigation of heavy metal contents of 100 refined and an equal number
of bakery refined table salt samples collected from the local markets of Lahore, Faisalabad and Gujranwala,
Pakistan. Levels of lead, copper, cadmium and iron were estimated using an atomic absorption spectro-
photometer. The results indicated a mean ± SD in µg/g levels in the refined table salt samples for lead
(0.85±0.22), copper (1.37±0.25), cadmium (0.41±32) and iron (7.72±2.1). For bakery refined table salts
values for same metals ranged 1.61±0.51, 2.07±1.2, 0.71±0.21 and 12.6±5.1, respectively. Obtained results
were compared with the maximum limits recommendations for human consumption set by Codex
Alimentarius Commission.