Seasonal Assessment of Water Quality by Statistical Analysis in the Coastal Area of Sindh, Pakistan
Water Quality in Coastal Area of Sindh
Monitoring of groundwater is very important because of climatic and demographic patterns along the coastline of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Seventy representative groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for the investigation of physico-chemical variables to understand the groundwater chemistry of the coastal belt. Multivariate statistical techniques were applied to interpret the data to reveal the pollution sources in the groundwater samples. The normalized charge balance index (NCBI) was computed on the data set and the I:Tz- and I:Tz+ were analyzed in the collected groundwater samples. Cations were in excess and alkalinity in the aquifer of the study area was balanced by Ca+ + Mg+ ions. The contribution of ions was insignificant for charge balance. Mg+2 and Ca+2 were in huge concentration and alkaline hardness was maintained by the alkaline rocks formation. Majority of the charge was balanced by S0-2 and Cl-. In groundwater ionic composition is used to categorize it into ionic types of groundwater based on the dissolved cation and anion. The ionic reaction is likely regulated by domestic geological formation. The sample location illustrates Na+-S0-2 and Na+-Cl- nature of -2 +- groundwater. The groundwater with Na+-S04 and Na -Cl dominancy generally shows saline characteristics that make groundwater unfit to use for irrigation and drinking purposes.