Analogize Studies on the Geochemistry of Bentonite Clays of Shaheed Ghat Formation (Early Eocene) from Eastern Sulaiman Range, Pakistan
Geochemistry of Bentonite Clays in Pakistan
The purpose of this research work was to designate the mineralogical and chemical characterization of the bentonite clay of Shaheed Ghat formation (Ghazij group). Two analytical techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), were applied to describe bentonite clay material from Eastern Sulaiman range (ESR) which comprises of three districts (DG Khan, Musakhel and Barkhan) of Pakistan. No comprehensive geochemical description of the area has been carried out to date. The results obtained from six different localities (ESR of Pakistan) were compared with each other, with indigenous areas of Punjab (Attock and Jhelum), KPK (Cherat, Garhi Chandan, Azakhel and Jhandola), Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Bimber) and three international countries Turkey (Tireboule), Brazil (Bao Vista) and Nigeria (Gombe state). From the XRF analysis, the major oxides in the selected clay samples are as Si02 > Al203 > Fe203 > Ca0 > Mg0 > K20 > Ti02 > S03 > Mn203 > Sr0. The average value of silica (Si02), alumina, (Al203), iron (Fe203) and magnesium (Mg0) contents of bentonite clays are 50, 12.57, 10.90 and 2.84 wt.%, respectively. The XRD result shows that Montmorillonite, Albite, quartz, Smectite and Illite are the major clay minerals. All the outcomes from the six sections (Zinda Pir, Khajuri, Rakhi Nala, Kingri, Kot Muhammad Khan and Rarkan) were close to the reported indigenous and international values.