Evaluation of Water Quality in Household Water Treatment Systems (Filters) used in Kalar City, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq

Water Treatment Systems in Kalar City

  • Abdulmutalib Raafat Sarhat Department of Chemistry, College of Education, University of Garmian, Iraq
  • Muhammad Mohsin Department of Geography, Govt. Sadiq Egerton Graduate College, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • Mohammad Khalil College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Garmian, Iraq
Keywords: evaluation, drinking water quality, household water treatment systems, Kalar, Iraq


A number of water quality data is available from local water corporation. However, people do not know the quality of the water that is coming out of their taps. Our drinking water, whether it comes from the mains supply is likely to be contaminated. Lots of water filter manufacturers are posting incorrect advertisements about water quality to promote their products. This is what drives people to use water filters. The objective of this research was to assess the quality of household water treatment systems (filters) which are being used in Kalar for the removal of cations and anions. A number of brands of home water treatment devices used in Kalar were selected, with one device chosen from each brand for study. The results of this study indicated that the average removal of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and fluoride were (97.35%), (96.06%), (89%), (89.09%) and (77.9%) respectively. However, many residents of the study area are suffering from tooth decay due to a lack of fluoride in the water, especially in children and young adults. So, the use of water treatment devices is not necessary and it's not recommended to drink this type of water especially for children. Also, the general quality of water before treatment with the filters considered as good quality; therefore, it's not recommended to use these devices in households.