Error Analysis Based on Isothermal Study Performed for Adsorption of Cr (III) with Hematite Nanosorbent Loaded on Rice Husk Biochar

Isothermal Study of Cr (III) with Hematite

  • Tunzeel Iqbal Department of Chemistry, The Rawalpindi Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • Shahid Iqbal University of Education, Jauharabad Campus, Jauharabad- 41200, Pakistan
  • Fozia Batool Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha- 40100, Pakistan
Keywords: hematite, equilibrium studies, error analysis, error equations, linear and nonlinear, adsorbents


Environmental safety and green technologies for the removal of harmful pollutants which burning issues now a days. In this regard research work was carried out for the sorption of Cr (III) from aqueous solution by three basic adsorbents named rice husk (RH), rice husk biochar (RHBC) and hematite loaded rice husk biochar (HLRHBC). The results revealed that rice husk nanomaterial as low cost adsorbent. Equilibrium studies were applied for error analysis to evaluate isotherm data. Linear and nonlinear analysis were used to calculate error functions. Linear errors were calculated from experimental results and non- linear error function data was calculated from error equations. Five errors i.e. sum square of errors, average relative error, sum of absolute error, chi square error and average percentage error were determined. Results indicated that all isotherms were supported by error data analysis both in linear and nonlinear approach. But chi square, sum square of errors and average relative error provided better determination for all adsorbents.