Covid 19 and Food Safety: Guidance for Preventive Techniques in Food Borne Diseases by Micro-organisms

Review: Preventive Techniques Uses for Food Borne Diseases

  • Nighat Sultana Pharmaceutical Research Centre, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Karachi-75280, Sindh, Pakistan ;
  • Sohail Akhtar bCentre for the Development of Laboratory Equipment, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Karachi-75280, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Adel Zia Siddiqui Baqai Dental College, Baqai Medical University, Karachi-75340, Sindh, Pakistan
  • Haseeb-ur- Rehman Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Sindh, Pakistan
Keywords: food preservation, Salmonellae sp., pH value, moisture removal, desorption



Surface hygiene is commonly measured as a part of the quality system of food processing plants but as the bacteria present are commonly not identified and their roles for food quality and safety are not known. Here, we review the identity of residential bacteria and characteristics relevant for survival and growth in the food industry along with potential implications for food safety and quality. Sampling after cleaning and disinfection increases the likelihood of targeting residential bacteria. The increasing use of sequencing technologies to identify bacteria has improved knowledge about the bacteria present in food premises. Overall, non-pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, especially Pseudomonas spp., followed by Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. dominate on food processing surfaces. Pseudomonas spp. persistence is likely due to growth at low temperatures, biofilm formation, tolerance to biocides and low growth requirements. Gram-positive bacteria are most frequently found in dairies and in dry production environments. The residential bacteria may end up in the final products through cross contamination and may affect food quality. Such effects can be negative and lead to spoilage, but the bacteria may also contribute positively, as through spontaneous fermentation. Pathogenic bacteria present in food processing environments may interact with residential bacteria, resulting in both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on pathogens in multi species biofilms. The residential bacterial population or bacteriota, which does not seem to be an important source for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to humans but more knowledge is needed to verify this. If residential bacteria occur in high numbers, they may influence processes such as membrane filtration and corrosion. The use of high temperatures to preserve and ensure the safety of food is based on the effect of microbial destruction. Thermal processing is one of the most widely used unit operations employed in the food industry and is frequency determined as a critical control point. This white paper covers the main science behind the unit operation and should be used to underpin the development and design of thermal processing steps type.