Soil Characteristics and Fertility Indexation in Gujar Khan Area of Rawalpindi
Soil Characteristics of Gujar Khan Area
Soil characteristics of Gujar Khan area of Rawalpindi district were evaluated through physical and chemical analysis. About 3002 soil samples were received/collected from farmers' fields of Gujar Khan during the period between 2012 and 2017 and analysed for texture, electrical conductivity (ECe), pH, organic matter (OM), available phosphorus (AP) and available potash (AK). The analysis results revealed that texture of the soils varied from sandy loam (33.5%) to loam (61.6%). The 98.6% soils had ECe values within the normal range (< 4 dS/m) and almost 74% soil had from 7.5 to 8.5 pH values with an average of 7.76. Thus there was no salinity/alkanity hazard in the area. Generally most of the soils were poor from the fertility point of view. About 96% soils were poor in both OM and AP contents, whereas, 3.0% soils have OM (>0.86%) and 3.4% satisfactory levels and AP (>7.0-14 mg/Kg). However, 62% soils has satisfactory to adequate AK status. The frequency distribution analysis indicated that 45% soils of Gujar Khan and OM content in the range of 0.4-0.6%, 57% and soil have AP in the range of 4.0-6.0 mg/Kg, while 50% and AK in the range of 81-120 mg/Kg. The soil fertility indexes in respect of OM and AP were low (1.0), whereas AK (1.7) indicating a medium fertility status of Gujar Khan soils.